Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an injury to the brain caused by trauma to the head (head injury). There are many possible causes, including traffic accidents, assaults, falls, and accidents at home or at work. The effects of a traumatic brain injury can vary widely and depend on several factors, including the type, location, and severity of the injury. Acquired brain injury covers all situations in which brain injury has occurred since birth, and includes traumatic brain injury, as well as a tumor, stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, and encephalitis, to name a few.
The effects are often very similar to those of traumatic brain injury, but there are key differences that make the treatment and coping of acquired brain injury very different. Concussions are one of the most common traumatic brain injuries. They occur when the brain changes function as a result of hitting the inner walls of the skull. Edema refers to swelling of the brain that can occur as a result of any traumatic brain injury.
Since the skull cannot expand to accommodate swelling, edema can cause pressure on the brain. A diffuse axonal injury causes damage to the axons of brain cells that render them unable to function. There is no bleeding associated with a diffuse axonal injury, however, there may be swelling. This type of injury can ultimately lead to the loss of certain functions.
An intracranial hematoma is characterized by the accumulation of blood in the brain or empty spaces around the brain that is caused by the rupture of a blood vessel. There are different types of bruises depending on their location in the brain. Skull fractures are rare, however, they can cause a change in brain function and possible infection when they occur. Thin fractures are usually closely monitored, while depressed fractures or fractures that leak cerebrospinal fluid require intervention.
Non-traumatic brain injuries, on the other hand, are caused by internal factors such as oxygen loss, exposure to toxins, or pressure from a tumor that damages the brain. Non-traumatic brain injuries are usually the result of stroke, aneurysm, tumor, near-drowning, infectious disease, and lack of oxygen to the brain. They are sometimes referred to as non-traumatic acquired brain injuries or ABI. A stroke or backlash brain injury occurs when there is a significant impact on the brain that causes the brain or skull to crash against the opposite side of the impact site.
The result is damage to the site of the impact, as well as to the opposite side of the brain. While any injury can cause a coup d'état brain injury, these incidents are often especially violent and produce immediate symptoms. Serious car accidents blow to the head, hard falls, and acts of violence are particularly skilled at producing these injuries. A concussion, sometimes called mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), is the most common type of brain injury, accounting for hundreds of thousands of emergency room visits each year.
Commonly caused by a sudden blow to the head, a concussion shakes the brain and causes the brain to accelerate in the direction of the force. In other words, a concussion shakes the brain. Concussions range from mild to very severe. A generation ago, most doctors believed that concussions were little more than inconvenient.
We now know that a concussion can cause lifelong damage. People who suffer from multiple concussions may experience concussion-related syndromes. People who have frequent concussions may develop a condition called chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Especially common among professional football players, this form of brain damage can permanently change mood, behavior, and brain function.
A contusion is simply a bruise, a mild form of bleeding under the skin. Brain contusions are similar to concussions and often occur along with them. If a brain contusion does not stop bleeding on its own, it may need to be surgically removed. The extent of damage associated with a brain contusion depends on the size of the bleeding, how long it lasts, the effects of surgery, and the location of the lesion.
A diffuse axonal injury (ICD) is similar to a concussion in that it results from brain movement, but it is much more serious. With an ICD, the head moves so violently that the brain stem cannot keep up with the rhythm of movement, causing tears in the brain connections. These tears can be microscopic and cause varying degrees of brain damage. They can also be quite large.
Tears that are big enough can be fatal. The severity of symptoms with this type of injury depends largely on the brain areas affected, the severity of the tears, and whether other injuries were also suffered, such as a contusion or concussion. Just as a scab that reopens takes longer to heal and can produce a scar, a second brain injury when you've already suffered a first one can cause more catastrophic damage. Sometimes called recurrent traumatic brain injury, the effect of the second-impact syndrome depends on the location of the injury, the severity of the first injury, and the degree of trauma suffered.
The shaken baby syndrome is similar to diffuse axonal injury but tends to produce more global effects. It is now considered a form of criminal child abuse in most places, it is often the result of parental frustration with incessant crying. Shaken babies often suffer from broken blood vessels and brain hemorrhages, strokes, and tears in the brain and brain stem. In many cases, shaken babies die.
The effects are almost always catastrophic and long-lasting. People with mild to moderate TBI may only need minimal treatment. Your care may involve a short period of rest from sports, school, or work. Symptoms should improve within a few weeks.
Skull fractures are a concern because impaired ability can cause injury to the brain or provide an open pathway for infection, or both. Concussions are the most common type of traumatic brain injury. When a strong force hits the head, the brain moves in the direction of the force until it collides with the skull, causing damage. Although in the past concussions were considered only minor inconveniences, doctors now take them seriously.
Symptoms of concussion can range from mild to severe, and in some cases, can even cause lifelong difficulties. A contusion is essentially a bruise in the brain, which means it is a mild form of bleeding. A type of contusion in which two parts of the brain are injured is known as a backlash injury (see below). The prognosis for different types of traumatic brain injuries depends on their severity.
Minor head injuries, such as concussions and contusions, tend to have positive results, with most patients recovering completely. More severe types, such as diffuse axonal lesions, often have lasting effects. That's why two speech therapists came together to create the cognitive therapy app CT Speech. It contains more than 100,000 cognitive exercises that are available directly from your phone or tablet. Do you know these 15 TBI recovery tips?.
A head injury is any type of injury to the brain, skull, or scalp. This can range from a minor blow or bruise to a traumatic brain injury. Common head injuries include concussions, skull fractures, and scalp wounds. The consequences and treatments vary widely, depending on the cause of the head injury and the severity of the head injury.
This is the most common type of head injury. A concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that occurs when the brain shakes or shakes hard enough to bounce off the skull. It can range from mild to severe. You don't have to get hit in the head to get a concussion.
An impact on another part of the body can create enough force to shake the brain. A bruise on the brain itself is called a contusion. May cause bleeding and swelling. A concussion or other head injury can also occur when two athletes collide or a player is hit in the head by a sports team.
In football, even heading the ball can cause a concussion. Signs and symptoms of a concussion may appear right away, or it may take hours or even days to appear. You don't always lose consciousness with a concussion. A concussion causes changes in a person's mental state and can disrupt the normal functioning of the brain.
Multiple concussions can have a lasting, life-changing effect. If you think you may have a concussion or suspect someone else has it, the most important step you should take is to prevent further injury. Stop any activity you are involved in and tell someone you think you may have been injured. If you play as part of a team, ask to be removed from the game and tell the coach what happened.
If a teammate has signs of confusion or sudden loss of coordination, be sure to report it to a coach. If you are coaching a team and notice a possible injury, remove the person from the game and verify that the person is receiving medical attention. Although not as visible as other forms of brain injury, a diffuse axonal injury is one of the most dangerous types of head injuries. Since traumatic brain injuries involve direct physical damage to the brain, there are terrible consequences both physical and mental.
People with penetrating head injuries often suffer seizures and are more likely to develop epilepsy after traumatic brain injury than people with other types of brain injuries. A cerebral hemorrhage refers to an uncontrolled hemorrhage on the surface of the brain or within the brain tissue itself. A stroke is an emergency condition in which there is a disruption of blood supply to part of the brain, leading to brain injury. Keep in mind that while death from a sports injury is rare, brain injuries are the leading cause of sports-related deaths.
If you suffered a brain injury in an accident, you need a lawyer on your side who can help you get maximum compensation. Work closely with your healthcare providers to decide the best treatment approach for your type of traumatic brain injury. A concussion is a mild brain injury caused by tremor, an impact on the head, or a sudden change in movement, such as whiplash. People who survive penetrating injuries may need repeated brain surgeries, high doses of antibiotics, and a variety of therapies designed to restore function.
After suffering a traumatic brain injury, a person may suffer from a number of debilitating symptoms or even risk losing his life in more severe cases. . .